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U5 essay questions 1. Compare and contrast the causes of World War I and World War II? WWI At Business Planning For 2018 settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the principle of nationalism was ignored in favor of preserving the peace Germany and Italy were left as divided states, but strong nationalist movements and revolutions led to the unification of Italy in 1861 and that of Germany in 1871 Nationalism posed a problem for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans, areas comprised of many conflicting national groups. o Appeasement—the British (Chamberlin) allowed the Nazis to get away with far to much in hopes of “keeping the peace” à this practice just encouraged the Nazis further. o Dissatisfaction with the results of the Versailles Treaty had the German people wanting revenge. § Hitler exploited this and created a highly nationalistic and militaristic state. Imperialism and Raw Materials. o Another factor which contributed to the increase in rivalry in Europe was imperialism. o Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution à Scramble for Africa. o Some could say that the Industrial Revolution was a long term spark that helped to ignite WWI. o This factor mostly deals with Japanthe only Asian country with a burgeoning industrial economy at that time, feared that a lack of raw materials might hinder its ability to fight a total war against a reinvigorated Soviet Union. § Invaded Manchuria in 1931 and was not stopped by any à including the highly ineffective League of Nations. § The US, which controlled 80% of Japanese oil imports issued a total embargo in early 1941 à led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor to destroy the Pacific Fleet “A day which will live in infamy” Alliance System and Arms Race. o World War I was caused in part by the two opposing alliances developed by Bismarckian diplomacy after the Franco-Prussian War. o Bismarck took advantage of Italian resentment towards France and created the Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria- Hungary in 1882. § Russia, France and England responded with the Triple Entente. o Menance of alliance system led to a hostile arms race. o Armies and navies were greatly expanded. o The standing armies of France and Germany doubled in size between 1870 and 1914. o Allied Powers—composed of England, Russia, France and the United States. o Axis Powers—composed of Germany, Italy and the Empire of Japan. o Militaristic Japan harbored expansionist desires which worried other nations with vested interests in the Pacific. § Military build-up by the British in resource rich Malaya and Singapore. § Germans and Russians making deals to carve up Poland. Spark of WW1— Assasination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist. Spark of WWII— German blitzkrieg invasion of Poland in September of 1939. 1b. Compare the origins of World Wars I and II with the Punic wars between Rome and Carthage. 2. Compare and contrast the resolutions of World War I and World War II. Consider the following: Peace agreements – major players, ideology, geographic boundaries. Role in creating future confrontation. Role in creating future confrontation. Treaty of Versailles. · Signed on the 28 th of June 1918, exactly five years after the assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand. · --Other Central Powers were dealt with separately. · Took six months of negotiations to conclude the treaty at the Paris Peace Conference. Provisions of the Treaty. · the surrender of all German colonies as League of Nations mandates. · return of territory taken by the Germans. · ban on the union of Germany and Austria. · limitations on size of army and navy. · --was the biggest proponent of blaming Germany. · --Fourteen Points and League of Nations. -A democratic government was formed. --by 1929, most of the populations was voting for anti-democratic parties—NAZI’s. ---Reparations of 6,600 and shamed by the world, land being taken away and the Rhineland being demilitarized angered many Germans. ---Inflations was so rife and reparations was causing poverty to soar. -Most of all, Billionaire doctor’s purchase of L.A. Times returns it to local control detested the fact that their government signed the treaty at all. --France was much harsher than Britain or the United States who wanted to avoid angering the Germans too much. --Depression of the treaty, combined with the collapse of the world market, caused Germany to be very vulnerable. --Germans were desperate for change…this is when Hitler(a former soldier) knew he could leave his mark! · World War II did not produce the sweeping peace settlements, misguided as most of them turned out to be, which had officially ended World War I. · Allies met on several occasions in an attempt to build a framework for a more lasting peace free of the vindictiveness that was so prominent at Versailles. Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the two global superpowers. DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNISM. - representaive of the world’s peoples, in both large and small nations, than the League of Nations was. --US played a major role in its establishment. --Soviet Union was a charter member. --Defeated Axis powers were eventually granted membership, as were their former colonies. --Diplomacy and assistance moved beyond the orbit of Western powers. --UN worked not only with international justice but also with environmental, health, welfare problems, etc. THE WORLD GLOBALIZED. --Soviets expected massive terroitorial gains after the war and the US wanted to curb them. --Unresolved disputes of the post-war settlements led to COLD WAR. -- -Division of Germany into occupation zones. ---Britain refused to limit Germany’s industrial might seeing them as a potential ally in a potential Western-Soviet contest. --Growing US influence in Western Europe against growing Soviet influence behind the Iron Curtain. --Cold War had the potential to be the war to end all wars. 3. Analyze the impact of war on civilians. Choose either World War I or World War II and compare it with one of the following conflicts: Korean War Vietnam War. Biafra War Angola War. Nicaragua War Bosnia/Kosovo War. · Patriotic and enthusiastic civilians, unaware of the horrors of the warfront. · Executive branches gradually took over elected parliaments and industries. · Propaganda and censorship to increase war support. · Targeted and killed many civilians (used as air raid targets). · Russia, 1917 - Labor protests, end of the tsar, Bolsheviks in power. · Germany – shortage of fuel and food, military commanders ran the country -> brink of revolution in 1918 and 1919. · Increase of women in labor force -> more rights for women, vote in Britain, Germany, US. · Germany – Hitler targeted gypsies ,leftists, homosexuals, and Jews. · Japan – hundreds of thousands of civilians died in fire and atomic bombings by the US. Roy Peter Clark needs your help writing a new book surrender – invasion of Okinawa civilians forced to jump off cliffs instead of surrender. · Targeted and killed hundreds of thousands of civilians (massacres in Damba in Uíge ProvinceHalloween Massacre ) · Civilians and children abducted and trained in guerrilla warfare. · Civilians took part in the violence (eg. Halloween Massacre, civilians received guns from the police). · President Diem installed by US, hard for citizens to relate to him. · Guerilla warfare – death of many civilians. · Patriotic – communist forces convinced civilians that Americans were imperialist, and it was a war for independence. · More explosives dropped in Vietnam alone than in the entire WWII. Chemical warfare. · In the end, the nation was impoverished. · 4 million civilian and military casualties. · ½ of Korea’s industries, and 1/3 of all homes destroyed by the end of the war. · Complete disruption of civilian life – battle lines shifted every few months. · Possesions and homes destroyed by bombs, crops trampled, livestock stolen, injured by gunfire & violence. 4. Compare and contrast European nationalism during the Interwar Period with that of the independence movements in those nations that decolonized following World War II. While the causes of nationalism of both European countries and the independence movements were directed against a common enemy, the decolonized countries often splintered as a result of disunity due to its often diverse ethnicities. 5. Essay examples By the Book: Reese Witherspoon the changing role of the United States in the twentieth century. Consider its role economically, diplomatically and militarily. Due to the World War I and II, United States was ushered in as the dominant economic power (the largest creditor nation after WWI); in addition, United States went from playing a peripheral role in world affairs to being one of the two superpowers to finally being the world's only superpower. 6. Compare and contrast the impact of globalization in the 21 st century with that of European colonialism in the 19 th century. While both globalization in the 21st century and the European colonialism in the 19th century served to connect different nations, people, goods, and ideas, globalization in the 21st century sought to create a more balance economy while european colonialism purposely sought to dominate nations and make them subservient. 7. Compare and contrast the patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and South Asia . While both Africa and South Asia experienced violent decolonization and further instability, at least some effort was made to differing ethnicities and religion in South Asia while it was ignored in Africa - leading to increased violence and instability in Africa following its decolonization. 8. Compare and contrast two of the following revolutions’ effects on the roles of women : Russian Revolution 1917. Chinese Revolution 1949. Cuban Revolution 1959. Iranian Revolution 1979. Under Mao Zedong and Ayatollah Khomeini, leaders of the Chinese and Iranian revolutions, the status of women changed greatly in both nations. Although, as is the case today, women still serve a somewhat unequal and subservient role, the effects of the Chinese revolution were much more in women's favor. Arranged marriagesfemale infanticide and low marriage ages were all abolished as China became more secular. The case in Iran was much different; although women came out in force to bring the Ayatollah to power, his regime made their lives terrible: they were not allowed to be in public without being fully clothed ( neglecting to do so meant 30 lashes), they could not hold government positions and they were segregated from men in most public areas. Iran had gone from a modern democracy to an outdated theocracy, while China entered the modern world as a republic. 9. Compare the effects of the World Wars on two of the following regions: *The World Wars brought to end the European colonial empires in Asia, Africa and Latin America. But the liberation of the colonies did little to disrupt Western dominance in terms of international trade or the global economic order. Nations differed in their ability to successfully govern the country in its post-independence years, India being more ready for independence than African states, for example.* - World Wars brought economic disruptions to India. o widespread famine (1943-1944) wartime transport shortages. - Indian soldiers fought in World Wars for the allies. o agreement that they would gain independence after the war. - European grasp on colony weakened. o colonizers unwillingness to enter into conflict necessary to crushed nationalist movements. o with European enemy gone, divisions in society emerged more markedly. violence between radical Hindus and Muslims. creation of Pakistan, Bangladesh. o U.S. advocating self-determination. Africa. - African soldiers also fought in World Wars for their colonizers. o mainly to gain independence. - also struggled with ethnic and religious divisions after independence. o Europeans created artificial borders which ignored cultural differences. o elimination of common European enemy caused internal divisions to emerge. - less successful in post-independence years. o lacked highly educated class and professionals. o lacked people with skills and ability to take charge of society. - Southeast Asian colonies also gained independence. o inspired by India’s independence and civil disobedience campaigns. o retreat of British power weakened lesser empires. o U.S. advocating self-determination. - communist revolutions in east Asia emerged victorious. Latin America. - during WWI, economies had expanded and population increased. o immediate effect: import substitution. produce for themselves what they could not import. - unlike the other, Latin American countries had already gained political independence. o struggled for economic independence in the decolonization wave after wars. large export based economic. - less involved in WWII than the other countries. o was already independent politically. 10. Compare and contrast why developing nations chose to align with either the USSR or the United States during the Cold War. While both USSR and the United States promised aid, United States SKT Fakers Legend Immortalized in Chinese School Textbook to aid a country through economic means while the USSR preferred to aid a country through militant means. 11. Compare the legacies of colonialism and the patterns of economic development in two of the three areas below: 12. Compare and contrast the independence struggles of Africa. Why were some nations more successful than others in diversifying their economies, developing a stable political system, and social equality? 13. Compare and contrast the methods and effectiveness of guerilla warfare with that of high-tech warfare. Use specific examples from two of the following military conflicts of the 20 th century. Even though the Vietnam and Iraq Wars stand fifty years apart, the American military went into both conflicts confident of an easy and quick victory against an enemy they presumed to be disorgainized, poorly trained and poorly equipped. Both the Viet-Cong and Iraqi forces (both with Soviet military aid) utilized guierlla tactics and the rugged topography of their countries to outmanevour the technologically superior Americans, leaving both wars unpopular back in the states. --Both had fought and won wars against other foreign nations. Vietnam vs. France (1950's) Iraq/Afghanistan vs. Soviet Union (1970's) 14. Compare and contrast the methods and results of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro. 15. Analyze the demographic changes of 20 th century considering three of the following:

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